Tangu  2015, Ramani Huria imekuwa ikipambana na mambo yanayohusu mafuriko jijini Dar es salaam ili kupunguza mafuriko na kuhamasisha usimamizi endelevu wa rasilimali maji.Sasa tupo kwenye awamu ya pili  ya mradi, Ramani Huria 2.0 imejikita kwenye kutengeneza ramani ya kata za Dar es salaam zilizo kwenye hatari zaidi ya mafuriko, kama vile Kigogo na Hananasif, ili kutengeneza taarifa za mafuriko ambazo baadaye zitatumika kufanya maamuzi na mipango ya kupunguza mafuriko. Timu ya Ramani Huria huanza kwa kujitambuisha kwa maofisa wa kata, kwa kuelezea mradi na kupewa baruua ya utangulizi kupeleka kwa watendaji wa mitaa. Baada ya hapo team itatambulishwa kwa wajumbe- viongozi wa ngazi ya chini kabisa kwenye serikali ya mtaa.  

Wiki hii tulitetembelea timu inayokusanya taarifa kuona kazi nzuri inayofanywa na timu hiyo. Tulifurahi kukutana na mwanajamii aliyeshiriki kwenye mradi wa Ramani Huria 1.0.

 ‘’Nilishiriki kwenye Ramani Huria 1.0 wakati tulikuwa tunatumia karatasi na GPS kuzunguka kukusanya taarifa. Ilikuwa inachukua muda mrefu na taarifa nyingine zinaweza kupotea kwenye mchakato, Lakini sasa kwa kuwa tunatumia simu kukusanya taarifa, inakuwa haraka na sio rahisi kwa taarifa kupotea’’ Hafidhi Hamza, wanajamii.

   

KUSHOTO; Mahojiano na mwanajamii aliyeshiriki kwenye mradi wa Ramani Huria 1.0.

KULIA; Mtaro ulioziba kutokana na uchafu nyuma ya nyumba ya mkazi kata ya Kigogo.

Taaarifa zinazokusanywa na ramani huria zinawasaidia wafanya maamuzi kwenye ngazi zote za kijamii kwenye hatua za kupunguza mafuriko kwenye maeneo yenye hatari ya mafuriko.Kulingana na ramani ambazo zilichapishwa kwenye ramani huria 1.0 tayari wanajamii wanaanzisha njia za usimamizi wa taka kusafisha mitaro iliyoziba na kuelimisha wakazi juu ya adhari za kutupa taka hovyo. Idadi ya watu inaongezeka na taka zinazozalishwa zinaongezeka maradufu, Ramani kama zinazotengenezwa na timu ya Ramani Huria ni muhimu kukuza ufahamu wa mafuriko, sababu za kupunguza na mipango ya majibu endapo mafuriko yatatokea.

Timu ya Ramani Huria ilianza kwa kutumia programu ya OpenMapKit kukusanya taarifa za kata ya Hananasif na sehemu ndogo ya kata ya kigogo. Timu hiyo iligundua kuwa ni ngumu zaidi kuchambua data zilizokusanywa katika muundo wa poligoni, hasa wakati wa kutengeneza Heat maps kunahitaji taarifa ya kukusanywa kama pointi, hivyo timu hiyo ikaanza kutumia Open Data Kit (ODK). ODK inaruhusu kukusanya pointi za taarifa na kujaza utafiti ili kuonyesha mwenendo wa mafuriko katika kata hii.

Mchakakato wa kukusanya taarifa ni kama ufuatao-

Mjumbe wa nyumba kumi atachagua mwanajamii mwenye simu ya kkidigitali ili:

  1. Simu itawekwa programu ya ODK.
  2. Kuhahakikisha kuwa dodoso limepakuliwa kutoka kwenye mtandao wa  www.turkus.net (Dodoso mara nyingi linakuwa kwenye lugha ya kiswahili ili kuepuka vikwazo vya lugha)
  3. GPS ya simu inatakiwa ikaguliwe (mara nyingi inatakiwa iwe na usahihi usiozidi mita 4)
  4. Mwanajammii ataelekezwa na timu ya Ramani Huria jinsi ya kukusanya taarifa kutumia ODK.
  5. Wanajamii wataelekezwa jinsi ya kufanya dodoso ili wawze kukusanya taarifa zinazohitajika.

Baada ya kuhakikisha kuwa wanajamii wamepata ujuzi unaohitajika kwenye kukusanya taarifa, kazi inaanza. Mwanajamii atapewa vocha ya simu ili ajiunge kwenye mtandao na power bank ili kuchaji simu endapo itahitajika.

 

PICHA; Mwanajamii na mjumbe wakikusanya taarifa kwenye programu ya ODK

“Ramani Huria 2.0 ni nzuri kuliko Ramani Huria ya mwanzo kwa sababu hii ya sasa tunakusanya taarifa kwa njia ya dodoso na mwanajamii anaulizwa kama nyumba yayke imewahi kupata mafuriko au laa. Hii inaweza kutoa taarifa za kuaminika na kumbukumbu kwa serikali” 

Hafidhi Hamza, Mwanajamii.

Timu pia ilionyesha jinsi inavyochambua taarifa zilizokusanywa ili kuhakikisha kuwa kila kitu kimekamilika kabla ya kuuhamia kwenye kata nyingine. Takwimu zinaonyeshwa kwa mujibu wa mjumbe kwenye eneo lake la kuongoza, na katika kila kifungu unaweza kujua kuwa dodoso limekamilika au laa.

Data za wajuumbe kata ya kigogo zikionyeshwa kwenye ramani- Kila kundi la rangi linaonyesha mipaka ya shina la mjumbe.

Timu pia inaweza kuangalia vizuri jinsi washiriki walivyojiibu maswali ya historia ya mafuriko kwenye maeneo yao. Washiriki wanaulizwa maswali kama “Je uliwahi kupatwa na mafuriko” “Mafuriko yalikuwa na kina gani”, “Je ulihama makazi yako kutokana na mafuriko” “unadhani nini kilisababisha mafuriko”

Timu ya kujenga taarifa mpya kwa kila mwaka mafuriko yanaripotiwa kwa sababu athari za mafuriko zinaweza kuonekana kwa urahisi zikichambuliwa kwa kila mwaka.

PICHA; Fomu ya uchunguzi wa ODK kuhoji kina cha mafuriko

Ramani kama hizo hapo juu zinaonyesha maeneo yaliyohatari kwa mafuriko. Tayari, faida za Ramani Huria 1.0 zinaweza kuonekana. Wajumbe wa shina walielezea jinsi ramani za RH 1.0 zimetumiwa kuwajulisha mipango ya kusafisha mitaro ili kuondoa taka kutoka kwenye mifereji. Kuongezewa kwa mipaka ya Wajumbe na taarifa sahihi zaidi ya kina za mafuriko kutoka kutoka Ramani Huria 2.0 itaendelea kuwajulisha na kuwashauri wanajamii na viongozi wa serikali juu ya maeneo ya kuzingatia katika mipango ya kupunguza mafuriko.

This week we visited the field team this week to see the amazing work that is being done by the team.We were excited to meet one of the community members who has been involved in mapping since 2015 when Ramani Huria 1.0 was implemented.

“I participated in Ramani Huria 1.0 when we were using field papers and GPS devices to move around to collect information. It was time consuming and you may have lost data during the process, but now that we’re using smartphones to collect data it’s quicker and you’re not likely to lose data in the process” – Hafidhi Hamza, Community Member

   

LEFT PHOTO; Interview with Community Mapper from Ramani Huria 1.0

RIGHT PHOTO; Drainage blockage caused by littering behind a resident’s house in Kigogo Ward

The data collected from Ramani Huria is helping inform decision makers at all levels of society on flood mitigation measures to tackle current pain points. Already, based on the printed maps produced from Ramani Huria 1.0, local people are establishing waste management initiatives to clean blocked drains and educate residents on the detrimental impact of littering. As population increases and the level of waste produced multiplies, maps such as those produced by the Ramani Huria team are imperative to raising awareness of flood causes, mitigation measures and response plans. The Ramani Huria team initially started to use OpenMapKit for data collection and mapped Hananasif ward and part of Kigogo ward. The team then realised that it is more difficult to analyse data collected in polygon format, especially when producing heat maps you need the data to be collected as points, so the team immediately switched to using Open Data Kit (ODK). ODK allows them to collect data points and fill out the survey to establish the trend of flooding in this particular ward.

The data collection process was conducted in the following manner –

Ten cell leaders (Wajumbe) would select a community member who owned a smartphone so that:

  1. The phone could be installed with Open Data Kit (ODK) Collect.
  2. They could make sure that the survey form is downloaded from the server; www.turkus.net (the survey is written in Swahili to avoid language barriers and is user friendly).
  3. The GPS accuracy of the device could be checked (usually less than 4 meters).
  4. A community member could be trained by the Ramani Huria team on how to collect data using ODK
  5. ODK questions will be elaborated to community members to make sure they collect the desired information.

After making sure that community members are equipped with the data collection skills needed, field work commences. A community member is provided with scratch cards (to buy internet packages) and a power bank.

 

PHOTOS; Community member and Mjumbe conduct ODK flood extent surveys with local residents

[symple_testimonial by=”” fade_in=”false”] “Ramani Huria 2.0 is far better than RH1 because in this phase we conduct community surveys and a community member is asked questions such as if the residents of a particular house had experienced flooding or not. This can provide reliable and documented information to the government” – Hafidhi Hamza, Community Member[/symple_testimonial]

The field team then demonstrated how they analyse field data to make sure that everything has been covered before moving on to the next ward. Data is visualized according to Mjumbe leaders area of jurisdiction and within each cluster you can determine if all of the survey questions have been covered.

SCREENSHOT; Kigogo Ward Mjumbe data points visualized on a map – each colour cluster represents a Mjumbe Shina boundary

The team are also able to visualize clearly respondents answers to questions about the history of flooding in their area. Respondents are asked questions such as, “have you ever experienced flooding?”, “how deep was the flood water?”, “have you moved settlement because of flooding?”, “what do you think caused the flooding?”.

The team create a new dataset for each year flooding is reported so that flood impact can easily be visualized by year.

PHOTO; ODK survey form questioning the depth of flooding

Maps like the one above demonstrate clearly areas prone for flooding. Already, the impact of Ramani Huria 1.0 can be seen. Community members explained how the RH 1.0 maps have been used to inform community cleanup initiatives to remove waste from blocked drains. The addition of Mjumbe boundaries and more accurate, detailed flood data from ODK from Ramani Huria 2.0 will continue to inform and advise community members and government officials on focus areas for flood mitigation planning.

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